Mechanisms of RF Electromagnetic Field Absorption in Human Hands and Fingers

Chung-Huan Li, Mark Douglas, Erdem Ofli, Nicolas Chavannes, Quirino Balzano, and Niels Kuster, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Volume 60, Issue 7, pp. 2267–2276, July 2012, online June 26





Sleep EEG Alterations: Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Fields Versus Pulse-Modulated Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Marc R. Schmid, Manuel Murbach, Caroline Lustenberger, Micheline Maire, Niels Kuster, Peter Achermann, and Sarah P. Loughran, Journal of Sleep Research, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp. 620-629, December 2012, online June 22





A Novel Approach for Mobile Device Design: GA-Based Distributed Optimization to Comply with OTA, SAR, and HAC Standards

Xi Lin Chen, Erdem Ofli, Nicolas Chavannes, and Niels Kuster, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp. 22–31, February 2012, online June 1

Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions

Exposure of the Human Body to Professional and Domestic Induction Cooktops Compared to the Basic Restrictions

Andreas Christ, René Guldimann, Barbara Bühlmann, Marcel Zefferer, Jurriaan F. Bakker, Gerard C. van Rhoon, and Niels Kuster, Bioelectromagnetics, online ahead of print June 1, 2012

The product standard IEC 62233 requires that the incident magnetic field of induction
cooktops be measured at a distance of 300mm from the appliance. Because of the strong
field gradients in the immediate environment of the cooking zone, the user may be exposed
to comparatively high field strengths. We measured the incident magnetic field of 13
professional and 3 domestic induction cooktops at the distance specified by IEC 62233
and immediately at the appliance. While most measured cooktops comply with the exposure
limits for the general public at a distance of 300mm, the majority exceeds them at closer
distances, some of them even the occupational limits.

In order to quantify the user exposure, a numerical model of a generic induction cooking
zone was developed and scaled to the incident fields of the measured appliances. The induced
currents were simulated in different anatomical models of adults, pregnant women and children.

The scientific and technical impact of the study can be summarized as follows:

  • When operating the generic cooktop at incident field strength compliant with the measurement
    standards, the current density exceeds the basic restrictions (ICNIRP 1998) by up to 24 dB.
  • Brain tissue of young children can be overexposed by 6 dB. 
  • The exposure of the tissue of the central nervous system of the fetus can exceed the limits for the general public when the mother is exposed at occupational levels. 
  • In consequence, the product standard IEC 62233 does not sufficiently protect exposed persons according to the basic restrictions as defined by 1998 ICNIRP guidelines.




Children and Adults Exposed to Low Frequency Magnetic Fields at the ICNIRP Reference Levels: Theoretical Assessment of the Induced Electric Fields

Jurriaan F. Bakker, Maarten M. Paulides, Esra Neufeld, Andreas Christ, Xi Lin Chen, Niels Kuster, and Gerard van Rhoon, Physics in Medicine and Biology, Volume 57, Number 7, pp. 1815–1829, April 2012, online March 13





Exposure System to Study Hypotheses of ELF and RF Electromagnetic Field Interactions of Mobile Phones With the Central Nervous System

Manuel Murbach, Maria Christopoulou, Pedro Crespo-Valero, Peter Achermann, and Niels Kuster, Bioelectromagnetics, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp. 527–533, September 2012, online February 13





Parallelization of the FDTD Method Based on the Open Computing Language and the Message Passing Interface

Tomasz P. Stefanski, Nicolas Chavannes, and Niels Kuster, in Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp. 785–789, March 2012, online January 20





Experimental Evaluation of the SAR Induced in Head Phantoms of Three- and Eight-Year-Old Children

Marie-Christine Gosselin, Sven Kühn, Andreas Christ, Marcel Zefferer, Emilio Cherubini, Jurriaan F. Bakker, Gerard C. van Rhoon, and Niels Kuster, IEICE Transactions on Communications, Volume E95-B, Number 10, pp. 3215–3224, October 2012

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