Children and Adults Exposed to Low Frequency Magnetic Fields at the ICNIRP Reference Levels: Theoretical Assessment of the Induced Electric Fields

Jurriaan F. Bakker, Maarten M. Paulides, Esra Neufeld, Andreas Christ, Xi Lin Chen, Niels Kuster, and Gerard van Rhoon, Physics in Medicine and Biology, Volume 57, Number 7, pp. 1815–1829, April 2012, online March 13





Exposure System to Study Hypotheses of ELF and RF Electromagnetic Field Interactions of Mobile Phones With the Central Nervous System

Manuel Murbach, Maria Christopoulou, Pedro Crespo-Valero, Peter Achermann, and Niels Kuster, Bioelectromagnetics, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp. 527–533, September 2012, online February 13





Parallelization of the FDTD Method Based on the Open Computing Language and the Message Passing Interface

Tomasz P. Stefanski, Nicolas Chavannes, and Niels Kuster, in Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp. 785–789, March 2012, online January 20

Experimental Evaluation of the SAR Induced in Head Phantoms of Three- and Eight-Year-Old Children

Experimental Evaluation of the SAR Induced in Head Phantoms of Three- and Eight-Year-Old Children

Marie-Christine Gosselin, Sven Kühn, Andreas Christ, Marcel Zefferer, Emilio Cherubini, Jurriaan F. Bakker, Gerard C. van Rhoon, and Niels Kuster, IEICE Transactions on Communications, Volume E95-B, Number 10, pp. 3215–3224, October 2012

The exposure of children to mobile phones has been a concern for years, but conclusions regarding compliance with safety standards are so far based only on simulations. Regulators have requested that these conclusions be supported by experimental evidence. The objectives of this study are 1) to test whether the hypothesis that the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) used in standardized compliance testing is conservative for homogeneous child heads and 2) to validate the numerical prediction of the peak spatial SAR (psSAR) in child heads. To achieve these objectives, head phantoms of 3- and 8-year-old children were developed and manufactured.

The scientific and technical impact of the study can be summarized as:

  • confirmation that SAM is conservative for children
  • demonstration that the currently recommended experimental SAR averaging procedure is conservative but that numerical SAR averaging procedures may significantly underestimate the actual psSAR
  • confirmation that the currently defined limits in terms of averages of cubical shape masses are impractical for non-ambiguous evaluations, i.e., for achieving inter-laboratory repeatability.
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